The Square knot or reef knot, is used to connect two ropes of equal thickness.
It is not really trustworthy so keep the ends long enough and preferably tie the ends with half a stitch.
Breaking strength of the knot is 45% of rope strength.
The knot is easy to detach by pulling on one end, the reason why first-aiders knot bandages and slings with it.
Mnemonic to remember the knot: right over left, left over right.
Bulin knots (Sheet bend, Bowline)
The Sheet Bend is used to tie ropes of different thicknesses. The first loop should be made with the thick rope.
Breaking strength is 55% of rope strength. The knot is better when it is performed double.
By giving the thin rope an extra twist. Breaking strength gets up to 75%.
The bowline is used to lay a loop into the end of a rope.
Breaking strength is 55% of the rope strength. This bulinknot is allso better when it is performed double.
This is done by starting with two overhand loops. Breaking strength gets up to 75%.
Figure Eight knot
The figure eight knot is used to lay a loop into the end of a rope.
By the cumbersome method of installation it is not always as popular as the bowline.
However, it has a breaking strength that equals 100% of the rope strength (if properly placed).
For this application it is used in mountaineering to bind persons onto the rope.
Here you put the knot into the rope single, put the end through the harness, and plug it back. This is done by following
the first part of the knot in opposite direction.
The alpine butterfly is used to make a loop in the middle of a rope lay, or to temporarily fix rope.
By a tensile strength that equals 100% of rope strength, it is to criticize as very safe.
The easyest way to make the knot is around your own hand.
The fisherman's knot (angler or captains knot, and many others) is used to connect ropes permanently, in one line.
By a breaking strength of 75% of rope strength, it is regarded as safe.
However, the ends supposed to be taped away. The double fisherman's knot (grinner) is suitable for thin string or fishing line.
(bottom two images)
With the Prusik, ropes can be movably connecting.
Only if you move the thin rope along the thick rope without sliding the knot it will tighten.
The breaking strength of the node is above that of the thinnest rope so the knot is very safe.
The Clove Hitch is used by scouts, to connect rope to wood.
Both ends are then tensionable. Note the rope must be under constant tension.
With a possible shock load it can happen that the knot slides.
Breaking strength is between 60 and 70% of rope strength. If the rope is wet, the rope wil crush itself "strenght = 60%".
A rapid method to make the clove hitch: Insert an overhand and a underhand loop over each and place it over the wood.
Only to perform when the end of the wood is accessible.
Half Clove Hitch / Munter Mule
The Half Clove Hitch, Munter Mule or Italian sting is not really a knot.
It is used for securing heavy loads. In mountain climbing, to secure for people (to secure while climbing).
One end of the string contains the load, the other end is handheld.
The carabiner or Snap is anchored to something heavier than the main burden. (Also read mountaineering techniques)
The Timber Hitch is also used to connect rope to wood. Its allso a way to fix materials together. Old way to build scaffolding.
Tensile strength is about 70% of rope strength.
The Sheepshank is used to shorten a rope without cutting it. When made it needs tension or it will fall apart.
To counter that the loops fall out of the knot. You may knot the loops on the ends.
Cross knot (friendship knot)
For this knot I am only sure it is being used to ty the ends of a badger. The decorative ability of the knot excludes the necessity of a woggle.