When skin, muscle tissue or organs (lung) damage by heating it's called a burn. Depending on the depth to which the
heat or cold has penetrated the severity of a burn is graded.
First degree, a red, dry, sore stain. Br>
Second degree, also red and painful. The place is damp and sometimes blisters show.
Third degree, a white or yellow-brown color wich does not hurt.
A third degree burn is so deep that the nerve endings in the skin are destroyed. This will not hurt anymore. If the skin burns
worse, black spots will appear. This is called carbonization.
Just as in case of burns a body can be damaged by hypothermia (Freezing). The appearance of wounds by freezing look similar to a burn,
but should be treated differently.
People with severe burns preferably are to be placed in a sitting position.
People with severe burns should not eat or drink.
Burns, caused by heat, should be. Cooled as quickly as possible, it's best to treat the wound with gentle running cold / lukewarm water.
Hold for a period of at least 5 to 10 minutes. Do not use ice cold water this may cause hypothermia. If there is no tap in place
cool by other means, wet rags from a ditch is better than untreated wounds. The heat which, by burning, enters into the body,
has to be taken out. A body part contains moisture, which becomes hot by the combustion, this heat is retained by the body and will, during
longer period of time continue to cause damage. Make sure that the possible jet of water is not exactly focused on the wound. Closed wounds are
sensitive and may burst. This you wich to prevent in relation to a possible bacterieële infection.
With burns always start by cooling, even doctor or emergency service comes in second place. Do not remove clothing, it can be sticking to the
wound and you may couse additional damage. Never apply ointment on the wound, unless prescribed by a doctor. Try to cover open wounds as sterile as
possible in order to minimize the risk of infection after cooling. In case of an internal burn by inhaling steam
or hot air, then you always immediately contact the doctor.
As reported previously tissue damage can be caused by cold too. Unlike burns frostbite dous not need to be cooled, but precisely heated up.
Warming is best done without external heat sources. Best method is by transferring body heat. Do this with the least possible losses in a
sleeping bag or under a blanket. If the situation does not allow a transfer of body heat, then you focus on the isolation of the victim.
A blister is a red vesicle filled with fluid and / or blood. Blisters may arise from several causes, each cause needs his own
treatment. A sealed blister due to friction (rowing, chopping wood or walking), is actually a burn and should be left as is.
Taping with adhesive plaster can then distribute pressure on a blister better. When the blisters are particularly annoying prick them open
with a disinfected needle and apply a firm bandage or plaster (adhesive plaster, tiles like) to. With an open blister, you cut the loose skin
away and disinfect the wound thoroughly (good washing with pure water), and put betadine ointment in it. Afterwards apply a compressive
dressing or plaster.
Blisters caused by combustion, chemicals or bloodfilled blisters you always leave closed.